Archive for May, 2019

Modify genesis controllers for dumb operation (JAMMA)

May 30, 2019

In trying to build a small portable Jamma test rig around a little CRT the subject of controls came up.  The obvious answer to me was the genesis controller as it contains the joystick (d-pad) three buttons and start, which is the primary Jamma standard per player.  The 6 button controller could allow for the extended Jamma button set but for now I just needed to get Tetris going.


The genesis controllers have 8 buttons, which would allow for a simple pinout of 8 buttons and a ground, but they didn’t do that.  They seemed to adopt the standard that was the pinout for the Atari2600.  The problem with that as a standard meant onr pin was for 5v because the spinners were really potentiometers and they used all three pins of the pot instead of just having a variable resistance between two pins (I don’t blame them, I would have done the same).  The 5v line meant that in order for these controllers to not cause the 2600 problems when inserted that they couldn’t have a button there.  That leaves one too few lines for the classic genesis controller.


The solution was to put a logic chip in the controller to multiplex the buttons.  That meant using the existing 5v line to power the chip, but also using another line to take in the select signal for the multiplexer.  This means that the genesis controller presents the states of Up, Down, Left, Right, B, and C or Up, Down, A, and Start.  Don’t ask me why it doesn’t always show left and right, or why A isn’t in the default layout.  The 6 button controller is even more complex having Z, Y, and X replace Up, Down, and Left every third cycle.  Truthfully you can do a sort of detection using left and right to determine which cycle you are on but it’s hacky and doesn’t always work.

I decided to dumb down these controllers, breaking compatibility with the genesis, but making them good general purpose controllers for future projects.  That involved re-wiring the DE-9 ports to get rid of the crappy molded connectors and wiring around the multiplexer chips to make them 8 buttons and a common ground.  I ended up having two different style controller PCBs so I had to do the reverse engineering twice.  In the end I also had to do a lot of cleaning to the carbon pads and the PCB where they make contact but now the controllers seem to work well. All the pictures are located here.


Sony Sports Watchman FM-45A composite input

May 30, 2019

As part of this ‘real Pip Boy’ project I’ve started I decided I needed a real CRT for this to work.  The whole point is to have antique technology, not just the look and Sony made portable CRTs of about the right form factor.  I elected to buy one, but the classic Sony Watchman has a long skinny appearance that I never much liked.  I prefer to have something closer to the dimensions of a Pip Boy to start with, so I found what I thought was the compact model.  It says sport in the name and the ratio of case length to width was more what I liked so I bought one for only $20 shipped.  When I got it I found out my mistake: this isn’t the smallest one, it’s the biggest one.  They apparently called it the ‘sport’ because the whole case is waterproof, and as I disassembled it I tend to agree (they did a really good job designing it).  That being said, I now have a heavy plastic box as big as my forearm and bigger than any of my model Pip Boys, that’ll do.


The problem with getting something that isn’t what everyone else is hacking means that you have to blaze your own trail.  There isn’t a place to find easy instructions to inject composite video into this particular model so I had to figure it out.  Not really.  Someone else found the same chip in a different one and explained where to hook in.  Pin 8 of the QDIP  IC201 is the composite pin and pin 23 s your ground reference on the Sony CX20183.  But at least now all these keywords are in the same place for the next person.


I still need to tune the CRT, inject audio into the existing amplifier circuit, maybe remove some RF components for space, make sure the radio still works, add a rechargeable lithium pack to run the monitor and pi, and add more sensors/buttons/knobs/lights.  The keyboard is done.

Xbox360 Chat Pad to USB

May 30, 2019

I have been working on a Pip-Boy that uses a real CRT (more to come on that later) but I decided that for input it should really have a keyboard, this is similar to the Pip-Boy 2000 Mark VI found in Fallout 76. This is a deviation from all prior designs having simple interfaces of rotary knobs and buttons (although the 1.0 prototype seemed to have a calculator-style keypad). Having a keyboard will help with the interface, meaning it doesn’t need special software to start with and can be used with a linux computer out of the box. My intent in the future is to extra inputs and outputs, but the keyboard is the first step in making it usable.


The keyboard itself is an Xbox360 chatpad. I bought this because it was cheap, and I assumed it would be a simple arduino library or python script and I’d have it working. I ended up with a little more work on my hands, but not much. Had I voiced this thought about an hour earlier I would probably have bought this, but I would have always complained that it was wireless.


I spent a fairly long time working to get this driver working. It turns out that there are apparently subtle differences between the knock-off and legit chatpads and this driver was tuned for the knock off which I didn’t have. I eventually gave up, but this would also have been a sticking point with me about the lack of portability that the solution had. Next I take a look at this arduino driver. It was promising, but ultimately flawed. Whenever I programmed it the keyboard would work, but after unplugging it and plugging it back in again (normal use case for a keyboard) it would fail, constantly, all the time. It took me a while to find the issue with this and I would also caution anyone working with an atmega32u4 to limit the amount of spam you put out the virtual serial port, it can cause programming issues with the arduino bootloader.

// Only act if a full message is available.
if (_serial->available() >= 8) {
for (int i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
_buffer[i] = _serial->read();
if (_buffer[0] != 0xA5 && _buffer[0] != 0xB4) i–; //if it gets off by one it will keep throwing out bytes until it gets to the start of another message

// We expect “status report” packets beginning with 0xA5, but don’t know
// what to do with them — so we silently discard them.
if (_buffer[0] == 0xA5) return;

// We *do not* expect other types of packets. If we find one, complain
// to the user.
if (_buffer[0] != 0xB4) {
Serial.print(“Unexpected packet type: “);
Serial.println(_buffer[0], HEX);
delay(100); //this makes the arduino micro programmable, fast serial communication locks it up
if (_buffer[1] != 0xC5) {
Serial.print(“Unexpected second byte: “);
Serial.println(_buffer[1], HEX);
delay(100); //this makes the arduino micro programmable, fast serial communication locks it up

I have added my code in red, and I will describe what exactly is happening here. This parser is written so it fires when there are enough bytes in the buffer to constitute a packet. Then it transfers the bytes out of the buffer and evaluates them. If the first byte is not one we expect, it throws out all 8 and starts again. If the second byte is not what we expect, it throws out all 8 and starts again. Think about that, if the byte you think is the start of a packet does not match the packet starting byte, why do you throw away the next 8 bytes and expect a packet to start there? This is an example of a super, SUPER optimistic bit of code. What was happening was a byte was getting dropped, probably because the chatpad booted up before the arduino and then it was forever out of sync. My fix for this was to inject a check into the loop that transfers the data out of the buffer and into the packet that’s decoded. If the header byte is not correct, I simply decrement the counter in the loop and it keeps over-writing the header until a valid one is present. This theoretically means the following checks will never fire.


With the parsing fixed I was now able to implement the character tables the way I wanted. I suppose I could have done this in the library, but I like to have a light touch on other people’s code and use it as-is as much as possible (at least where libraries are concerned maybe I have hangups about that).

if (type == Chatpad::Down) {
char a = -1;
if(mode == 0 && caps == 0) a = mode0A;
else if(mode == 0 && caps == 1) a = capsA;
else if(mode == 1) a = mode1A;
else if(mode == 2) a = mode2A;
if(a != -1) Keyboard.print(a);

This picks which array to decode the keypress to, either mode0 which is normal, mode1 which is green, mode2 which is orange, or caps lock mode. All positions that are unprintable characters in those overlays have a value of -1 so if the variable 'a' falls through this while remaining '-1' then it's either a keypress that warrants no action or something that has to be handled below.

if (code == 132 && mode == 2) mode = 0;
else if (code == 132) mode = 2;
if (code == 130 && mode == 1) mode = 0;
else if (code == 130) mode = 1;
if (code == 85); //left
if (code == 81); //right
if (code == 113); //backspace
if (code == 131); //leftcontrol
if (code == 99); //enter
if (code == 38 && mode ==2); //up
if (code == 54 && mode ==2); //down
if (code == 55 && mode ==2); //left
if (code == 53 && mode ==2); //right

if(code == 129 && caps == 1) caps = 0;
else if(code == 129) caps = 1;

The first couple lines handle setting or un-setting the green and orange lock modes, they can only be unset by pressing the same key again. The next few are special keys (not characters) and the four arrow keys are a sort of easter egg to me. I implemented the same sort of WASD-to-arrows on the Commodore 64 matrix controller and revived it here because there are no proper up and down arrows. The last two lines let you turn caps lock off in any mode and turn it on in any mode (but as you will see, in some modes it acts as shift and only in the correct mode does it act as a lock).

if (type == Chatpad::Up) {
if (code == 129 && mode != 2) caps = 0;
if (code == 85) Keyboard.release(0xD8); //left
if (code == 81) Keyboard.release(0xD7); //right
if (code == 113) Keyboard.release(0xB2); //backspace
if (code == 131) Keyboard.release(0x80); //leftcontrol
if (code == 99) Keyboard.release(0xB0); //enter
if (code == 38 && mode ==2) Keyboard.release(0xDA); //up
if (code == 54 && mode ==2) Keyboard.release(0xD9); //down
if (code == 55 && mode ==2) Keyboard.release(0xD8); //left
if (code == 53 && mode ==2) Keyboard.release(0xD7); //right

The first line does what I said above, if it is not in orange mode then when you release shift it does not lock, if in orange mode it locks. The rest just release the special keys they pressed. The entire rest of the code is just housekeeping on the LED outputs for the mode indication, I could have used other I/O for encoders or buttons but right now I wanted to keep it simple. There were other things I could have done, including reprogramming the PIC (but seriously, fuck PICs) or just using another library, but this is the solution I ended on.

My code is here and my repaired driver is here.